Iraj Mohebbi, Zahra Niazkhani, Samireh Feyzolahi, Azadeh Hosseini


Abstract. Background and Goal: urinary infections are invasions to any urinary systems by microbial factors. This infection is the most common urinary infection and is the second most commonly reported infection in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of infectious diseases based on ultrasound (sonography) results
obtained from children with calculus stone in a medical center in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in children who were in the Mofid hospital due to problems with calculus stone in 1397. First, specifications of all patients admitted with calculus stone were recorded. All children with calculus stones were under ultrasound
(sonography) of the kidneys and urinary system, and the number, condition and dispersion of the stones were recorded and examined. Findings: 31 children in hospital in the Nephrology department were studied which were 58.68% girl and 41.49% boy and on all of them ultrasound (sonography) was done. Blood and kidney ultrasound (sonography) findings (48.38%) and (22.58%) respectively, were abnormal. In the study of ultrasound (sonography) findings, the most common results were 21/21% remaining urine volume and 30/80% increase in bladder thickness, after which the stasis in the pilocalysis system was 9.26%, 9% kidney anomalies and 4.5% stones. Conclusion: The epidemiology of urinary infections was 32% of girls (form 58.6% female) and 22% male (from 41.94% male), which indicates a high level of urinary infections, especially in the female population.
Keywords: Calculus Stones, Infectious Diseases, Urinary Infections, Ultrasound (sonography), Kidney Stones.

Full Text:



DeFoor W, Minevich E, Jackson E, Reddy P, Clark C, Sheldon C, et al. Urinary metabolic evaluations in solitary and recurrent stone forming children. The Journal of urology. 2008;179(6):2369-72.

Dursun I, Poyrazoglu HM, Dusunsel R, Gunduz Z, Gurgoze MK, Demirci D, et al. Pediatric urolithiasis: an 8-year experience of single centre. International urology and nephrology. 2008;40(1):3-9.

Naseri M. Urolithiasis in Asian children: evaluation of metabolic factors. Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry. 201

Rizvi SA, Sultan S, Zafar MN, Ahmed B, Faiq SM, Hossain KZ, et al. Evaluation of children with urolithiasis. Indian journal of urology: IJU: journal of the Urological Society of India. 2007;23(4):420.

Rudolph A. M., Hoffman, Julien IE ,Rudolph, Colin D, 2006. Buku Ajar Pediatri Rudolph Volume.3.

Winberg J, Andersen H, Bergström T, Jacobsson B, Larson H, Lincoln K. Epidemiology of symptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Acta Paediatrica. 1974;63:1-20.

Farris PJ. Elementary and middle school social studies: An interdisciplinary, multicultural approach: Waveland Press; 2015.

Keren R, Shaikh N, Pohl H, Gravens-Mueller L, Ivanova A, Zaoutis L, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection and renal scarring .Pediatrics. 2015;136(1):e13-e21.

Karavanaki KA, Soldatou A, Koufadaki AM, Tsentidis C, Haliotis FA, Stefanidis CJ. Delayed treatment of the first febrile urinary tract infection in early childhood increased the risk of renal scarring. Acta Paediatrica . 2017 ; 106 ( 1 :) 149 - 54.

Infection UT. Working Group of the Health Care Office (HCO) of the European Association of Urology (EAU). EAU guidelines for the management of urinary and male genital tract infections. Eur Urology. 2001;40:576-88.

Lin K-Y, Chiu N-T, Chen M-J, Lai C-H, Huang J-J, Wang Y-T, et al. Acute pyelonephritis and sequelae of renal scar in pediatric first febrile urinary tract infection. Pediatric Nephrology. 2003;18(4):362-5.

Hansson S, Dhamey M, Sigström O, Sixt R, Stokland E, Wennerström M, et al. Dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy instead of voiding cystourethrography for infants with urinary tract infection. The Journal of urology. 2004;172(3):1071-4.

Baştuğ F, Gündüz Z, Tülpar S, Poyrazoğlu H, Düşünsel R. Urolithiasis in infants: evaluation of risk factors. World

journal of urology. 2013;31(5):1117-22.

Zafar MN, Ayub S, Tanwri H, Naqvi SAA, Rizvi SAH. Composition of urinary calculi in infants: a report from an endemic country. Urolithiasis. 2018:1-8.

Sarica K, Narter F, Sabuncu K, Akca A, Can U, Buz A, et al. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation. Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia. 2016;88(4):249-54.

Ergon EY, Akil İO, Taneli F, Oran A, Ozyurt BC. Etiologic risk factors and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in under one-year-old infants with urolithiasis. Urolithiasis. 2017:1-8.

Issler N, Dufek S, Kleta R, Bockenhauer D, Smeulders N, van‘t Hoff W. Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease: a 22-year single centre experience in the UK. BMC nephrology. 2017;18(1):136.

Lal B, Paryani JP. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad. 2015;27(1) : 17 - 21.

Kunin CM. Detection, prevention, and management of urinary tract infections: Lea & Febiger; 1987.

Kunin CM, Deutscher R, PAQUIN JA. Urinary tract infection in school children: an epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory study. Medicine. 196 4 ; 43:91 - 130.

Ahmad Te, Ali. Evaluation of imaging (sonography and VCUG) in urinary tract infections in the second half of 1998 in Kashan.

Mortazavi F, Mahbubi L. Clinical features and risk factors of pediatric urolithiasis. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. 2007

Ghane Daf. Frequency of metabolic disorders and response to medical treatment in infants less than 3 months with urinary stones. First National Congress on Neonatal and Pediatric Care. 2012

Hossein A, Farzaneh Ave. Frequency of metabolic disorders in children with urinary stones in Hamedan.

Alpay H, Ozen A, Gokce I, Biyikli N. Clinical and metabolic features of urolithiasis and microlithiasis in children. Pediatric Nephrology. 2009;24(11):2203.

Kamoun A, Daudon M, Abdelmoula J, Hamzaoui M, Chaouachi B, Houissa T, et al. Urolithiasis in Tunisian children: a study of 120 cases based on stone composition. Pediatric Nephrology. 1999;13(9):920-5.

Al-Eisa A, Al-Hunayyan A, Gupta R. Pediatric urolithiasis in Kuwait. International urology and nephrology. 2002.

McKenna PH, Herndon CA. Voiding dysfunction associated with incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent urinary tract infections. Current opinion in urology. 2000;10(6):599-606.

Canning D. High-pressure bladder: an underlying factor mediating renal damage in the absence of reflux? The Journal of urology. 2003;169(4):1602.

Wason M, Hansen A. Renal and urinary calculi in children. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2005;167(40):3786-9.

Edvardsson V, Elidottir H, Indridason OS, Palsson R .High incidence of kidney stones in Icelandic children.

Pediatric Nephrology. 2005;20(7):940-4.

Sty J, Wells R, Starshak R, Schroeder B. Imaging in acute renal infection in children. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1987;148(3):471-7.

Masoumeh M., Fereshteh M., Babak A., Mostafa Sh., Reza D., Bijan H., et al. Epidemiologic study of urinary stones in children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital during 5 years.

Ahmad Ali, Mahmoudzadeh, Hashem, Yar K, Ghaffari, et al. Comparison of kidney and urinary tract imaging

techniques in children with recurrent urinary tract infection. Urmia Medical Journal. 2008; 18 (5): 48-51.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2226–3209, ІSSN 2409–0506